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tv   Senate Debate on North Korea Sanctions  CSPAN  February 10, 2016 7:03pm-7:50pm EST

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enforcement of sanction by restricting the financial system for enemies aiding the enemy. ted cruz and mark rubio were both in the chamber and voted in favor of the measure. bernie sanders sent out a tweet saying he was necessarily absent for the vote but he strongly supports it. tomorrow the senate will vote to move forward on a final version of a trade and custom enforcement bill including a permanent ban on internet taxes. here is how the debate started this morning on the north korea bill. >> i want to start by thanking the leader for brinking the bipartisan north korea policy and enhancement act. this legislation passeded out of the senate foreign relation committee to address an issue with the nuclear and ballistic
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missile threat from north korea. >> there is no silver bullet solution but it is clear that congress must play a proactive role in providing more robust tools to the executive branch to confront this threat. there has been a lot of attention on north korea in the weeks following north korea's fourth test. but senator corker and men gardner worked on this issue before it got this far. they came together with a robust piece of legislation. i want to thank you for your leadership. you are new to the committee but not new to addressing problems our nation faces and i want to
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thank you for that. i would like to thank them over many months to focus on the attention poised by north korea to develop a bipartisan bill. i want to single out senator cardin for the constructive manner in which they worked with our team on this important piece of legislation. other senators made important contributions as well. senator cardin i was just boasting about your effort here. the senate and congress and country can be proud of this legislation. over the past decade the senate foreign relation committee has convened every couple years to assess the policy against north korea. there has been surprisingly
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variation in the over all description of the danger and recommended policy prescriptions. former u.s. officials characterized north korea's nuclear and ballistic missile opportunities as posing risk to the u.s. national interest. they stress the importance of standing with our close regional allies south korea and japan in the face of destabilizing north korean provocation. they all find it a necessity to cooperate with the international community to detur further provocation and prevent the spread of sensitive technology to and from north korea. they noted the importance of sanctions on north korea specifically the need for china to exercise greater influence. i am personally disappointed at the way the u.n. security council is functioning.
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whether it is iran where we had two ballistic missile tests and nothing has been done at the u.n. security council level. most recently china sent a delegation to meet with north korea right before this last test in order to try to influence them and the country of china was embarrassed by the fact that north korea went ahead with this ballistic test. in spite of that embarrassment and despite it is their neighbor conducting the provocations they have not agreed to u.n. security council resolutions to put sanctions in place against north korea. that is very disappointing. u.s. officials have spoken of the deplorable human rights condition in north korea including highlighting north korea as the notorious prison
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camps. there has been an approach with respect to the tactics of engaging north korea and the appropriate ballot of carets and sticks. it is apparent the last few decades of policy are not working. north korea continues to increase their nuclear and ballistic capabilities unchecked. they have orchestrated malicious cyber attacks that threaten our allies as well as our own national security. meanwhile, the north korean people remain impoverished and subject to brutal treatment at the hands of the kim jong-un regime. i appreciate the risks posed by north korea in their limited aupgsz options but there is more we could be doing and more we should be doing to address this. our bill puts in place strong
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mandatory sanctions. the president will be required to investigate a wide range of sanctionsable conduct including proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, arms related material, luxury goods which affect the elite in that country, human rights abuses, activities undermining cybersecurity, and provision of industrial input such as precious metals or coal for used in a tailored set of activities including proliferation activities and prison and labor camps. penalties include the seizure of assets, visa bands, and denial of government contracts. but i am also pleased this bill goes beyond just these sanctions which by the way are very strong and i want to underline the word mandatory. it establishes a more robust policy framework including tools
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to include enforcement and shines a brighter spotlight on north korea's human rights record such as their forced labor practices. the bill requires a strategy to promote improved implementation and enforcement of multi lateral sanctions. a strategy to combat north korean cyber activities and a strategy to promote and encourage international engagement on north korean human rights issues. there are reporting requirements related to these strategies as well as a report on political prison camps and a feasible study on providing communication equipment to the people of north korea. after the careful work over many months by bob parson and coalition in congress we have a piece of legislation that i believe will been to allow our country working with our ali -- allies to stop north korea from
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threaten their neighbors with nuclear weapons and focusing attention on the flight of the north korean people. i look forward to hearing the perspective from my colleagues on this legislation that i expect will receive bipartisan support and eventually become law. with that i thank you and yield the floor to my distinguished friends and senator corker. >> mr. priz -- >> let me start by thanking senator corker. the senate foreign relation committee has a history of working on policy issues in the best interest of our country and putting partisan efforts aside. chairman corker has carried out that tradition and elevated it to a level that i think has not
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only been in the best interest of the united states but the best interest of our country. that is especially true in this act. we all had the same objectives but when you are dealing with a hundred members of the united states senate and the 19 members of the committee we have different views and harmonizing that takes talent and patience and senator corker has talent and patience and i thank him for the way he thread committee. he brought a bill to the united states senate that i think will get overwhelming support and become law. senator gardner is the chairman of east asia and pacific subcommittee and the foreign relation committee and he
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understood the importance of north korea and its weaponization program and the impact it had globally. but in east asia it is a specific concern. gardn gardn gardner understood that and developed international leadership so we will be able to keep up there. i thank senator gardner for introducing the original bill in the senate and working with senator menendez to bring together legislation that is the proper oath for congress. i want to underscore that. this legislation represents what congress needs to do. we are the policymakers of america. we pass the laws. we then have the executive branch which is critically
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important for foreign policy don't get me wrong but we enable to tools to be able to carry out that foreign policy. what this legislation does is congress speaks with a clear voice we will not tolerate north korea's proliferation of weaponry and its intimidation of neighbors and human rights violations. we will use the strongest possible measures to make sure we contain that type of nefarious conduct. quite frankly, mr. president, the legislation you have before us is similar to the approach we took with iran and the congressionally mandated sanctions we have in ra -- iran. this legislation takes the product coming from the white house of the representatives, and it was a good bill, but we strengthened it and made it more effective with the input from
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the senate foreign relation committee. it is a strong message, unified bipartisan, working with the administration to produce a strong policy. now, north korea's foreign policy challenges are ruined by every president since the start of the korean war. they tested a long range ballistic missile. u.s. leadership is actually critical in standing up to north korea's activities. we must isolate north korea from getting international help to further their illegal weapon program. we want to prevent commercial interest anywhere in the world from trying to help north korea get the type of weapons and equipment and resources it needs in order to further its illegal
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weapon program. the united states has an effective diplomacy that provides incentives and disincentives to north korea's conduct. we need to form strong alliances and partnerships in the region and our goal is a peaceful, unified peninsula. we think that is in the best interest of all of the korean people. they have moved forward in their nuclear weapons program and production of nuclear material and continued to develop this ballistic missile program and poses hundreds of short and medium range missiles with activity platonium storages and
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tried to help syria build a reactor. this isn't about one country's state. it is about what they are doing in helping other countries that support terrorism and terrorist groups itself. it is critically important that we act. north korea represents a grave and growing threat to the united states, the region and the international community. to respond to north korea's belligerence this legislation includes mandatory sanctions directed against specific entities that violate u.s. law, united nation security policies including armed materials, human rights violations and we will get to that but this is an important part of this legislation, and activities that undermine cybersecurity. our legislation targets those who support these activities by provi provideing the regime with coal and provides economic support
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for north korea's elicit activity or the luxury regime that allows the continuation of control. we are going after the source of the financing of their illegal weapons program. it is not always the direct equipment that goes into the building the weapons. it is the mental wealth of the country they are using in order to finance that. this legislation targets those sectors. the president's mandated to sanctions any person who has contributed or engaged in or helped facilitate these actions. north korea is tied to the financial order in ways that provide the international community levelerage to seek changes in their behavior. it codifies existing cybersecurity sanctions including as we know the attack on sony. this is an important step in building and enforcing international norms when it comes to cyber space. so mr. president one of the
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areas that we have stressed in the house bill is to make it clear our concerns about north korea goes well beyond the nuclear weapons test but also their cyber attack activities. the vast majority of north koreans endure systematic violations of their most basic human rights and many of these violations constitute crimes against humanity. a fact that is well documented by the unitt nation. widespread malnutrition, torture and fear have made north korea the worst. i would ask unanimous consent we place in the congressional report the report of human rights in the democratic people's republic of korea by the united nations human counsel to serve as a representation of these crimes. these crimes by the north korean
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regime should shock the conscious of humanity. building on the important work, the united nation human right commission and general assembly adopted by overwhelming margins resolutions calling for accountability on north korea's human rights violation. we took up the grave injustice on their standing agenda for the first time. these multi lateral resolutions need to be backed by appropriate action and that is what we are doing. it is well past time to hold north korea responsible for its human rights violations and this legislation does just that. this legislation imposes sanctions not just for north korea's nuclear program and continued behavior but the severe human right violations committed in north korea. this is new and necessary in regard do is north korea.
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the tough sanctions worked on north korea when applied in the past and that i think is important to point out. sanctions do work. in 2005 the united states assigned a part in asia as a money laundering concern for facilitating north korea's activities and banned all u.s. financial institutions from dealing with that bank. it worked. it had a major impact on north korea. the problem is that was 2005 and we let up. they didn't keep the pressure up. this legislation will correct that oversight and remedy the reasons why the sanction are not effective today. this legislation acknowledges that sanction in diplomacy are the most effective way when integrated into a comprehensive study that negates all instances of policy. the enhancement act of 2016 includes instruments to enforce multi lateral sanctions and
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overall ways to combat their cyber activity and combat humanitarian violations. there is another point i want foounderscore. -- underscore. we have no problem with the people in north korea. it is the government. it is a government that is threatening their neighbors but also damaged, threatened and killed their own people. this legislation makes it clear we will continue to try get humanitarian assistance to the people of north korea. and enforcing sanctions against north korea is not something the united states can do alone. it with requires our allie and the partners in the international community to join our effort. we seek a multi lateral level at the united nation security council. chairman corker, you are right.
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china is as much of a threat as any other county. china could make a huge difference in isolating north korea and changing their behavior to denuclearize the peninsula. they should not be blocking the u.n. security council action. they should not only be supporting about thought using their influence over north korea to bring about a change as it relates to the proliferation of weapons. it is on china. the united states will do what it must do to safeguard our interest and that of our allies and that we will do. but we hope china, that claims to share the same goals of denuclearization of the peninsu peninsula, will agree on the same steps necessary to achieve that goal. our alliance remains as firm and
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resilience as ever and stand ready to support the north korean people. the alliance made a decision to begin formal consultations regarding the bad missile system. i support this decision as it sends the right signal to u.s. resolve to protect our allies and partners in the region. we will look for new defense systems to help the public of korae and our friends on the korean peninsula. i commend representative park who has shown will to strengthen the relationship to forage a response to north korea's reckless behavior. we must try to increase the
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relationship between japan and south korea. they are most important allies and we need to act together. strong leadership is necessary if we hope to pursue the denuclearization of the korean peninsula. it calls to help in the missile defense and information sharing areas and calls for u.s. leadership to strengthen the counter proliferation regime to insure north korea's most dangerous weapons are contained. this legislation does just that. it strengthens the u.s. policy and allows us to insure north korea will pay a price for its continued nuclear ambition while the body of the administration gets it the tools they need to implement a more effective approach to north korea. i urge all of my colleagues to join us in supporting this
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legislation. with that, mr. president, i would yield the floor. >> senator from colorado. >> i want to add to the chairman, the chairman corker and senator cardom, the work we have done over the past year to put this before the senate today, one of the first meetings we held in the office, chairman corker was to speak with my colleagues on the concern that we shared in north korea. the concern that while we have rightfully focused on the middle east and the various places around the country that we cannot take our eye of we also have north korea. senator cardin from maryland worked together on the east asia committee and that was to
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address cybersecurity issues and cyber attacks from north korea and the situation in regards to security on the north korean peninsula. and i think the work we have laid out over the past year is setting ground for this strong sanctions bill today. so i would like to speak obviously in support of hr-757 the north korea sanctions policy and enhancement act as amended by the unanimous amendment from january 28th. i want to thank the members of the committee and senator menendez particularly for working together to come up with a strong bipartisan solution to what is the problem with north korea. i would like to thank house foreign affairs committee chairman ed royce for his years of tireless work and dedication on this issue. having served with chairman royce in the house for a number of years i know his passion and
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commitment to bringing peace to the peninsula. this legislation comes at a critical time. those of you who saw the news this morning woke up to a story where another top military official in the kim jong-un regime was anasinated by kim jong-un. following a long -- assassinated -- following a long list of those who have been tortured, including his own uncle and those killed by guns from the air. north korea poses a threat to south korea, japan, and to the homeland. our policies are determined to forget the maniac kim jong-un. north korea conducted a satellite launch which was a
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ballistic missile capable of reaching the u.s. mainland. on january 6th, north korea conducted its third nuclear test. they claimed it was a test of a hydrogen bomb. a more powerful weapon than the regime tested in the past. regardless of the claim it was a hydrogen bomb or not is true this test represent as significant advancement in north korea's nuclear weapon capability. north korea violated a series of united nation security council resolutions including 1874, 2087, and 2094 all while the regime's stockpile of nuclear weapons continues to grow
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exponentially. it was reported north korea may have as many as 20 nuclear warheads with the potential for over a hundred in just the next few years. james clapper the director of national intelligence testifieded in front of the senate armed service committee -- i quote could begin to recover plutonion from the reactors within a matter of weeks to months. clapper stated north korea expanded the size of ballistic missile ranges from close range to intercontinent launches. kim jong-un is dedicated to developing a missile that is capable of posing a direct threat to the united states.
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the head of north-com, based in colorado springs, publically stated that north korea might have already developed the availability to miniaturize a w w warhead, mount it, and shoot it at the homeland. that is the words of a commander of north-com who believes they may have developed the ability to shoot it at the homeland. north korea has demonstrated time and time again it is an aggressive and ruthless regime that is not afraid to kill innocent people. on march 26, 2016 north koreans sank their own ship killing their own crew and then another ship crash killing four more. kim jong-un is developing a dangerous tool of intimidation.
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as shown in march of 2013 or the sony picture attack in november of 2014 this trend continues. according to a 2015 report by the center for strategic and international studies north korea is emerging as a significant act in cyber space with the military and cyber organization gaining the capability to conduct cyber operations. according to the heritage foundation, contrary to per exceptions of north korea as a technical backward nation they have a robust cyber warfare capability. the north korea intelligence agencies oversees 3,000 cyber warriors dedicated to attacking kim jong-un's enemies. a south korea cyber expert assessed that north korea's electronic war capabilities were surpassed over by the united states and russia.
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we should also never forget this regime remains one of the foremost abusers of human rights. as many as 200,000 men, women and children are confined to atrocious living conditions and tortureed, maimed and killed. on february 7th of 2014, the united nation human right commission of inquiry released a report detailing the record on human rights. the commission found that north korea's action constituted a crime against humanity. what has been this administration's policy to counter the north korea threat? our policy is called something, i quote, of strategy patience.
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that would be to wait until kim jong-un surrenders. we are reaping the rewards of this illconceived policy. the simple pact is strategic patient -- patience has been a strategic failure. we continue to expand the testing of ballisic missiles, develop cyber warfare technology and systematically continuing to torture its own people. we have neither militarily deterred this regime nor effectively used tools. our sanctions policies toward north korea have been weak and noted in the same csi report the sanction against north korea pail in comparison to the level of sanctioned in iran.
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the number of individuals sanction are 843 sanctions by the united states and 121 by the united nations for iran. but only 100 u.s. sanctions and 31 u.n. sanctions for north korea. when we do impose sanctions, sanctions we impose against north korea are not competitive. in response to the sony attack president obama issued executive order 13687 which was expansive in breadth but weakly implemented. they targeted 13 north koreans on the sanctions list and ten individuals not involved in cyber warfare. that was our response to north korea. we have not imposed human right
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sanctions on a single north korean individual. 200,000 men, women and children in north korea and the united states hasn't imposed a human right sanctions on a human north korea leader. that is a tragedy given the grievan grievances that have been perpetrated. i want to stop the maniac of kim jong-un. i had an opportunity to go to south korea and we agreed to status quo with north korea is no longer stable. i visited the dmz and days after i departed north korea fired artillery across the border
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further illustrating the danger that the south koreans live in every day. i traveled to china and met with foreign minister yung. but my conversations became evident that they are growing with behavior of the north korea regime, beijing has done little to stop kim jong-un. last october i introduced senate bill 2144, the north korea sanctions and policy enhancement act. i want to thank 17 of my colleagues in this senate for cosponsoring this bill. this legislation mandates, not authorizes, that the president impose sanctions against people that materially contribute to north korea's nuclear and ballistic missile development, import luxury goods, and
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sanctions that enable perpetrators that enable censorship, and engage in activities undermining cybersecurity, sold or transferred to north korea precious metals for the benefit of north korea's regime and illicit activities. these sanctions are tough and we know a significant amount of the currency north korea receives for trade and precious metals, raw materials, aluminum, ste steal -- steel and coal. 90% of north korea's economy is through its relationship with china. as senator cardin talked about he mentioned nobody faces a greater threat than japan and
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china who border a regime killing their own people and testing ballistic missiles in violation of china's determinations, the united states determination and certainly the unitt nations derm nation. this bill codifies the executive orders the president initiated last year regarding cybersecurity when were enacted in the sony picture hack and other cyber incidents. this is a unique feature of the senate bill. lastly, signing into the law the sanctions on cyber violators will break new ground for congress. something we can take as a model and apply to other nations to perpetrator cyber attacks against the united states. we need to look for every day to
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deprive kim jong-un. we have to send a strong message to china north korea's diplomatic protector and large trading partner that the united states will use every economic tool at its disposal to stop jong-un. and finally i would like to quote the "washington post" editoral board president obama's policy since 2009 has failed. the policy mostly consisted of ignoring north korea while putting pressure on china to pressure the regime. it concludes china and north korea must see they will pay a mounting price for what the united states should be intolerable steps toward an arsenal. strategic patience is no longer a viable option. i ask consent to submit this
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editoral in the record. >> without objections >> this builds the strong policy we need to stop the forgotten maniac. i ask my colleagues to support this bill. we can make a difference today and strengthen our partnership with south korea, japan and the united states and stop the torture of the people in north korea and lift the threat in north korea that harms their neighbors, allies, but also the people of this homeland. thank you, mr. president, i yield the floor. >> senator from tennessee. >> i know we have a number of speakers who are interested in this legislation and coming to the floor. i think most all of the time is
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taken between now and vote time. i would encourage other members who want to speak to fill in the gaps. i want to thank senator gardner and senator menendez for their efforts on the frontend o-- frot end of this. i was with an officer at a lunch meeting and i think he is okay with me sharing the fact that the senate is playing a role in projecting our strength and we continue to do so both through the armed service committee he serves on but also through the foreign relations committee and i think this is a very, very strong piece of legislation. a lot of times it is difficult for us to make a difference. let's face it. the commander and chief has such powers and such staff at their disposal that this is one of those pieces of legislation where i am certain we are going to make a difference. will it end north korea's
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activities? it is going to take collective effort to make it happen. but i think this begins the process of moving that along. i have to say i am so disappointed in the way the u.n. security council is behaving. i know that, and again i don't want to rehash old discussions that i know when we looked at the snapback provisions that were part of the iran nuclear agreement and we are dealing with partners like china who want to buy oil from iran and russia who wants to sell them arms and our european friends are dying to do business in the ways they are those snapback provisions mean nothing. they mean nothing. and the fact that iran had two ballistic tests that have taken place violating the u.n.
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security council resolutions and nothing has happened. nothing has happened because russia and china have blocked those means that in many ways for us to continue to project to cause change to occur in this body itself and we have to be more proactive. what you have done and seen this a long time ago and visiting and seeing the 28, 500 troops we have there. i know senator sullivan has done the same thing and realizing the constant danger there that south korea faces and japan faces and others. and to know in this particular instance with north korea being right on the border of china without knowing that china is the entity they can make the most difference and yet china again, after being embarrassed over what occurred, north korea paying no attention whatsoever
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to their reach out to try to keep this last instance from occurring and yet being unwilling. unwilling. when we have partners on the quote u.n. security council that are unwilling to take steps it means more so this body has to be proactive. i commend you. i commend the members of this body who are interested and will pass the legislation. i thank senator mcconnell and senator reed. i think to thank the chairman and others who sent the base bill over and it was a good bill, a strong piece of legislation that the senate by
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passage will strengthen later on. this is a collaborative effort. i hate to use words like that but it is a collaborative effort by two bodies of congress, and two committees, and ultimate by the end of the day two bodies, i think, fully passing this, it will become law and this is going to begin to make a difference in the way north korea's behaving. it is a port what is happening there. one of the greatest humanitarian crisis continues because of the way people are treated and this bill addresses that also. so thank you were your comments on the floor. thank you more importantly for your efforts in helping bring this piece of legislation to the floor but your leadership on the committee in designing this and i look forward to us having a very successful day here in the senate. >> will the gentlemen yield? >> yes. >> to the gentlemen from the tennessee talked about the
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disappointment with the united nations and i want to go back over the points we talked about. our colleague from maryland mentioned the fact the united nations -- or the united states has a similar approach to the sanctions that brought iran to the negotiation table. the sanctions levied against iran brought them to the negotiating table. and the fact the united states has levied almost eight times more sanctions against iran than we have a regime that does poses a nuclear weapon. yng we have more work to -- i think -- but the disappointment with the united nations is well-stated. >> yeah, i think it is good that you bring up the fact that when we began putting these sanctions in place there was a lot of push back because in essence, for those things to work properly,
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or have make the biggest difference in outcomes is you need to have an international effort that takes place. when we began the iran sanctions process it was unilateral. and i know we passed an amendment in the banking committee with that originated things to put in place to make it multi lateral. over time it did become that way and we forced a behavior change. i would have liked a better outcome and many others but this bill does seek and push the administration to not only implement these by mandatory statements but encourages them to work with others. i had the same conversations in china you had years ago.
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and the chinese with such emphasis on stability and i understand. it is right on their border which to me should make these provocations even more infureerating and more importantly relative to the security of their own country. but it just seems they too have exercised the patience you talked about your country exercised. and i believe passage by this and ultimate signature by the president has the potential to release the same change of events that occurred in iran hopefully with a better outcome and i want to thank you for your efforts. >> mr. president, let me start off by thanking the leadership of the senate foreign relation committee. the

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